Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)
DENTAL SURGEONS CAN OFFER PATIENTS AN OPPORTUNITY TO ENHANCE THEIR OWN HEALING PROCESS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA. WITH THIS NEW TECHNOLOGY, THE SURGEON CAN CONCENTRATE A SPECIFIC PORTION OF A PATIENTS BLOOD SAMPLE, WHICH CAN BE PLACED AT A SURGICAL SITE TO ACCELERATE THE HEALING PROCESS. THIS BLOOD IS DRAWN FROM THE PATIENT JUST BEFORE THE START OF THE SURGICAL PROCEDURE.
Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) is exactly what its name suggests. This substance is a by-product of blood (plasma) that is rich in a particular cell type called platelets. Until now, its use has been confined to the hospital setting. This was due mainly to the cost of separating the platelets from the blood (thousands) and the large amount of blood needed (one unit) to produce a suitable quantity of platelets.
Whats All The Excitement About PRP?
PRP works by encouraging your own body to take advantage of the normal healing pathways at a greatly accelerated rate. During the healing process, the body rushes many cells and cell-types to the wound in order to initiate the healing process. One of those cell types is platelets. Platelets perform many functions, including formation of a blood clot and release of growth factors (GF) into the wound. These GF (such as platelet derived growth factors PGDF, transforming growth factor beta TGF, and insulin-like growth factor ILGF) function to assist the body in repairing itself by stimulating stem cells to regenerate new tissue. The more growth factors released into the wound, the more stem cells stimulated to produce new host tissue. Thus, one can easily see that PRP permits the body to heal faster and more efficiently.
A subfamily of TGF is bone morphogenic protein (BMP). BMP has been shown to induce the formation of new bone in research studies in animals and humans. This is of great significance to the surgeon who places dental implants. By adding PRP, and thus BMP, to the implant site with bone substitute particles, an oral surgeon can now grow bone more predictably and faster than ever before.
PRP’s dental Applications:
• Bone grafting for dental implants: This includes onlay and inlay grafts, sinus lift procedures, ridge augmentation procedures, and closure of cleft lip and palate defects.
• Repair of bone defects created by removal of teeth or small cysts.
• Repair of fistulas between the sinus cavity and mouth
• Safety: PRP is a by-product of the patients own blood. Therefore, disease transmission is not an issue.
• Convenience: PRP can be generated in the doctors office while the patient is undergoing an outpatient surgical procedure, such as placement of dental implants.
• Faster healing: The addition of PRP to the wound enhances the release of growth factors, thus producing an increase of tissue synthesis and thus faster tissue regeneration.
• Cost effectiveness: Since PRP harvesting is done with only 20 or 60 cc of blood in the doctors office, the patient need not incur the expense of the harvesting procedure in hospital or at the blood bank.
• Ease of use: PRP is easy for the surgical team to produce and handle.
Frequently Asked Questions About PRP
Is PRP Safe?
Yes. During the outpatient surgical procedure a small amount of your own blood is drawn out via the IV. This blood is then placed in the PRP centrifuge machine and spun down. In less than fifteen minutes, the PRP is formed and ready to use.
Should PRP Be Used In All Bone-Grafting Cases?
Not always. In some cases, there is no need for PRP. However, in many cases, application of PRP to the graft will increase the rate of healing and create a better quality graft.
Contraindications To PRP?
There are very few. Obviously, patients with bleeding disorders or hematologic diseases do not qualify for this in-office procedure. Check with your surgeon and/or primary care physician to determine if PRP is right for you.
Rich Plasma or PRP is a by-product of blood that is exceptionally rich in platelets. PRP has long been used in hospitals to accelerate the body’s own healing process, but it is only fairly recently that advances in technology have allowed this same technique to be used in the dental office.
The blood platelets perform several essential functions in the body, including blood clot formation and the release of growth factors that help to heal wounds. These growth factors stimulate the stem cells to produce new host tissue as quickly as possible, which is why platelet rich plasma is so effective in the post-treatment healing process.
There are several ways in which PRP can be used in clinical dentistry:
Bone Grafting For Implants – This includes closure of a cleft lip and cleft palate deformities, sinus lifts, ridge augmentation, and both inlay and onlay grafts.
Bone Repair – PRP can be used in facial trauma reconstruction, repairing of defects due to tooth removal, or the removal of growths and cysts.
Fistula Repair – This includes the repair of fistulas between the mouth and the sinus cavity.
Reasons for platelet rich plasma treatment:
Platelet rich plasma application is now widely used to expedite the post-procedure healing process and is completely safe. Since the blood used will come from the patient’s own body, disease transmission is not a factor. Almost all patients report a much greater degree of comfort immediately after their procedure. There are also several more distinct advantages of PRP:
• Lower Infection Risk – PRP is smeared thickly on the wound after the procedure by the dentist and actually seals the wound away from infectious agents, lowering the risk of problems.
• Accelerated Healing – The saturation of the wound with PRP helps increase tissue synthesis due to its growth factors, and this in turn results in faster tissue regeneration. Speedier healing decreases the risk of later infections, complications, and discomfort.
• Safety and Convenience – Disease transmission is non-issue since the blood is harvested from the patient’s own blood supply. The amount of blood needed is small and can be collected during a routine outpatient procedure.
What does platelet rich plasma treatment involve?
The dentist will initially assess if your candidate for PRP treatment. Patients with blood clotting disorders will be unable to take advantage of this treatment. A small (about 2 oz) sample of your blood will be collected during a scheduled outpatient treatment. The blood will be placed into a centrifuge to separate the plasma from the red blood cells. A second centrifuge will be used to concentrate the platelets which contain the growth factor.
IMMEDIATELY AFTER SUTURING THE WOUND, THE DENTIST WILL APPLY THE PRP TO THE SURGICAL AREA IN A HIGH CONCENTRATION. THIS WILL EXPEDITE YOUR HEALING AND DECREASE THE AMOUNT OF DISCOMFORT FOLLOWING THE SURGERY. THE DENTIST WILL PROVIDE AFTERCARE INSTRUCTIONS PERTAINING TO THE SURGERY AND A PRESCRIPTION FOR PAIN MEDICATION AS REQUIRED. RICH PLASMA (PRP)